“HiredChina Network Technology Co., Ltd.”, hereafter referred to as “HiredChina” or “Party A”.
“Client” means the units or individuals (hereafter referred to as “Party B”) that meet party A’s promotion conditions, have, directly or through their agents, paid party A promotion fee and use the “Advertising Promotion Service” based on the conditions stipulated in this contract.
“Online Promotion Service” means the opened and continuously opened technical service that demonstrate party B’s advertising image information on certain positions on the www.guideinchina.com website and its wap website, guideinchina will provide technical support to the affiliated sites or applications and other relevant pages of the specific location of the display of Party B's advertising image information technical services.
“Advertising Image” means the image set by party B on guideinchina’s platform for product promotion, by clicking them, user could jump to party B’s website. The image information may not include QR code or website address but may include related product information, etc. Such advertising image shall be designed by party B on its own.
“Promotion Fee” means the fee that party B deposits in advance at party A to pay for expenses to occur in the future to purchase promotion service from party A, it is also referred to as “Advance Payment for Promotion”. The specific amount of “Advance Payment for Promotion” shall be in accordance with that in the order of party A’s promotion service.
6. “推广费”的续费：指乙方为继续使用“网站推广服务” ，在支付前一款规定的首次“推广费”后，后续向甲方支付且甲方也同意收取的推广预付款，又称“续费”。每笔续费金额最低壹佰元整（小写：RMB 100，但甲方有权依地区差异调整），不设上限。
“Renewal of ‘Promotion Fee’” means the advance payment for promotion that party B subsequently pays to party A and party A also agrees to receive after the payment of first “Promotion Fee” mentioned in previous clause in order to continuously use the “Website Promotion Service”, also referred to as “Renewal”. Each sum of renewal shall be no less than RMB One Hundred (figure: RMB 100, but party A shall have the right to adjust it based on regional differences), and no upper limit is set.
7. “点击计费”：指在www.guideinchina.com 网站及其wap网站，网民每点击一次乙方注册的推广信息，系统根据乙方为推广信息所设定的价格，自动从乙方的“推广预付款”中扣除一次点击费用。
“Pay Per Click” means that on the www.guideinchina.com website and its wap website, every time a netizen clicks the promotional information registered by party B, the system would, based on the price set by party B for promoting information, automatically deduct the fee for each individual click from the “Advance Payment for Promotion” of party B.
1. 乙方必须完全同意甲方在http://www.guideinchina.com上公布的《深圳市四海汇聚科技有限公司广告推广服务合同》（即“本合同”及其后续更新版本）全部条款，自行或授权其代理商完成注册程序，乙方使用 “广告推广服务”的行为将视为乙方对本合同全部内容和条款的接受。如乙方不接受本合同的，须停止使用相关服务，否则视为乙方默认同意本合同。
Party B must completely agree to the entire clauses of the "Advertising Promotion Service Contract of HiredChina Network Technology Co., Ltd.” (meaning “This Contract” and its subsequent updated editions) released by party A on http://www.guideinchina.com, complete the registration procedure on its own or by authorizing its agents, party B’s use of “Advertising Promotion Service” shall be deemed as party B’s acceptance of the entire contents and clauses in this contract. If party B doesn’t accept this contract, it shall stop using the related service, or else party B shall be deemed as consenting to this contract by default.
Any and all inconsistencies between the order of online promotion services signed between party B and party A and the "Advertising Promotion Service Contract of HiredChina Network Technology Co., Ltd.” released by party A on http://www.guideinchina.com shall be in accordance with the "Advertising Promotion Service Contract of HiredChina Network Technology Co., Ltd.”
Party B shall apply to party A for a management account number for promotion services, party B may, based on its registered user name and password, log on to the administrative account of ad.guideinchina.com, modify the registration information in such account, register, modify or delete advertising images and website promotion information, inquire the statistic report of advertising image clicking volume registered by party B, statistic report of fees, inquire the promotion policy of party A, etc.
The website information promoted by party B will, based on the settings by party B in the promotion service administrative account of the guideinchina website and through the automatic filtering system, appear on the www.guideinchina.com website and its wap website. After starting the promotion on pary A’s website, party B shall not show any content that violates the existing laws, regulation and party A’s product promotion policy by any means, including modification of website content, setting a website jump, adding malicious code, set a virus, etc. If party B engages in any of the behaviors mentioned above, party A shall have the right to immediately terminate this contract without refunding the balance of “Promotion Fee” to party B.
The charging method under this contract shall be the comprehensive charging method based on click volume. All the promotion pages participating in online promotion services pointed to by all the advertising images registered by party B shall be charged rather than just charging the first page of party B’s promotion website. Promotion service fees will be directly and automatically deducted from the administrative account of online promotion service.
Party B’s behavior of paying “Promotion Fee” will not guarantee that the advertising images registered by party B and website promotion information registered by party B would be certainly and successfully promoted on HiredChina website or shown at specific position or in specific times. If any advertising image or other information registered by party B fails to meet this contract, related laws and regulations, or the related policy of party A (including but not limited to that the registered website of party B doesn’t have legal qualifications, party B doesn’t have the special qualifications for engaging in its promoted industry, product or service, or any related information is suspected of breaking law or infringing lawful rights or interests of a third party), or party B fails to, based on party A’s promotion policy and reputation policy, implement the audit of qualification information for real name authentication on annual basis, party A shall have the right to refuse to provide party B with “Online Promotion Service” or adjust the demonstrating position and demonstrating time of party B’s promotion information. After party B sends to party A a written confirmation letter for termination of “Online Promotion Service” and returns the related original invoices and contracts or other related documents as required by party A, party A shall refund the charged advance payment for promotion after deducting the given “Promotion Fee”, then this contract shall be terminated (Unless otherwise agreed in this contract).
After completely consuming the “Advance Payment for Promotion”, party B may choose on the platform to renew the payment. Party A shall, at its own discretion, decide to accept party B’s renewal or to terminate the provision of promotion services to party B.
When party B’s balance in the administrative account of the promotion service account on HiredChina and its Wap website is not enough to pay the cost of the advertising services, party B or its agent may renew with party A, if party B’s advertising image is removed from website or cause termination of its online promotion service because party B or its agent fails to renew in a timely manner, party A shall not bear any liability.
Each renewal by Party B shall be deemed that the two parties have reached a new contract. Either party shall have the right to terminate the cooperation between the two parties in the form of rejecting renewal/accepting renewal.
Party B or its agent shall, based on the method consented by party A, charge promotion fee on the platform on its own, each charging shall be deemed as that party B consents the clauses and obligations stipulated in this contract.
Party A shall have the right to, based on actual circumstance, adjust the standard and fee payment method of the “Promotion Fee” of “Online Promotion Service” at any time, but the “Promotion Fee” that has been paid (payment made by themselves or by their agents) by party B before such adjustment shall not be affected.
For the purpose of performing this contract, party A shall have the right to preserve party B’s information (including but not limited to party B’s registration information, consumption information, promotion website/webpage, reputation rating information, netizen comment information, etc.) on party A’s server; within the scope allowed by laws and regulations, party A shall have the right to use and disclose party B’s information, including but not limited to using or disclosing party B’s information for the purpose of upgrading party A’s promotion service system, sampling test, updating, for the purpose of protecting netizens’ rights and interests, or enhancing the honesty environment of internet, or based on the judicial and/or administrative requirements.
Party A shall not guarantee or commit the authenticity, legality, accuracy and completeness of party B’s website and information to any third party, party B shall independently undertake full responsibility for the contents, products, services, etc. provided on its website.
If party B fails to pass party A’s first authentication or annual authentication review, party A shall have the right to directly terminate this contract without notice or refund of the unconsumed balance of the “Promotion Fee” after deducting the given “Promotion Fee”.
Party A shall have the right to delete any and all content that involves harm to national security, obscenity, false information, insult, slander, intimidation or harassment, infringement to other’s copyright or personal rights or other legal rights and interests, breach of law, or violation of public order and good custom, and remove all the advertising images registered by party B, or website information promoted by party B, and the “Online Promotion Fee” paid by party B shall not be refunded.
As for the advertising images and website information registered by party B, party A’s promotion system will implement automatic filtering. Party A shall have the right to adjust the automatic filtering standard of the system based on any adjustment of Chinese laws and regulations, order of administrative or law enforcement institutions, or change of social ethics and morality, and party B shall not require party A to continue to promote in the excuse that “similar advertising images or promoted website information were allowed to promote before”; party A shall have the right to, according to the requirements of related laws and regulations and product policy or service function, deny certain advertising images or website information registered by party B, party B shall not require party A to continuously pass and approve the promotion in the excuse that similar “advertising images and website information were allowed to promote before”. If any of the causes mentioned above cause party B’s advertising images or website information unable to be registered or promoted again, such advertising images or website information are rejected or removed by party A, party B shall have the right to notify party A to stop the “Online Promotion Service”, party A shall refund the unconsumed balance of “Promotion Fee” after deducting the given “Promotion Fee”.
6. 如乙方网站因存在假冒、欺诈、相关信息涉嫌违法等行为并由此导致与其发生交易的网民遭受经济损失，甲方在向投诉网民支付一定金额的保障金后, 有权从乙方的“推广费”中直接扣除相应金额；如乙方“推广费”不足扣除的，甲方保留向乙方追偿的权利。
Such as the existence of counterfeit, fraud, related information suspected of illegal acts such as B and the resulting transactions with Internet users suffered economic losses, after paying the complaining Internet user a certain amount of guarantee money, party A shall have the right to directly deduct the related amount from party B’s “Promotion Fee”; if party B’s “Promotion Fee” is insufficient for deduction, party A shall reserve the right to claim from party B.
7. 乙方（包括但不限于乙方网站及乙方所从事的经营业务）不得对甲方及甲方关联公司的利益、商誉和品牌形象造成任何现实或潜在的损害或冲突，否则甲方有权通知乙方立即终止“网络推广服务”，并不退还其未消费完毕的“推广费”余额，且甲方无需承担其他法律责任和费用补偿。 给甲方或甲方关联公司造成损害的，乙方应当赔偿损失。
Party B(including but not limited to party B’s website and the operational business engaged in by party B) shall not cause any actual or potential damage or conflict to the interest, goodwill or brand image of party A and party A’s affiliated companies, or else party A shall have the right to notify party B to immediately terminate “Online Promotion Service” without refunding its unconsumed balance of “Promotion Fee”, and party A will not need to undertake other legal liabilities and compensation of fees. If it causes any damage to party A or party A’s affiliated companies, party B shall compensate such loss.
Party A shall have the right to notify Party B of the suspension or termination of the network if it is subjected to force majeure (including but not limited to government regulation, policy adjustment, terrorism, hacker attacks, natural disasters, working conditions, power outages, technical adjustments in the telecommunications sector, and virus intrusion) Promotion services ", not as a breach of contract. Party A to suspend the "network extension service", after the impact of the event of force majeure, party A shall continue to perform its obligations based on this contract; if party A terminates online promotion service, party A shall refund the balance of unconsumed “Promotion Fee” to party B after deducting the given “Promotion Fee”.
Party A reserves the right to make business adjustment and product adjustment (including but not limited to client qualification standard, authentication standard, sales policy, demonstration mechanism, charging standard, etc.) on “Online Promotion Service”, after party A notifies party B, party B may choose to continue to use the adjusted business or product, or terminate the online promotion service, party A shall refund the balance of its unused “Promotion Fee” after deducting the given “Promotion Fee”, party A shall not need to undertake other legal liabilities or compensation of fees.
Party A shall have the right to implement punitive strategy (including but not limited to increase of promotion cost, restriction on demonstrating position and time of promotion information, immediate suspension or termination of promotion service without refunding) on party B for breach of national laws, regulations, party A’s review policy, and party A’s reputation policy, party B shall review the detailed rules in the account management system of party A.
Party B shall be obliged to independently or entrust its agent to effectively manage its promotion account, after the promotion website is released online, if party B fails to make additional payment, fails to apply for refund or has not produced any consumption for over 1 year, party A shall have the right to cancel its service account after exceeding one year.
Party B guarantees that it is a legal operating entity that meets the laws and regulations of the People’s Republic of China and has obtained the legal qualifications for operating the related businesses. Party A shall have the right to verify the authenticity of its entity qualifications, if party B refuses to accept such verification or party A has reason to suspect its legal status, party A shall have the right to refuse to provide party B with service.
Party B guarantees it will provide qualification materials as required by party A, apply for and accept party A’s annual real-name certification review on the authenticity of its qualifications, and perform the related procedures (including submitting qualification documents, accepting review of qualification documents), or else party A shall have the right to suspend the provision of “Online Promotion Service”. If party B provides any false qualification materials, party B shall have no right to require party A to refund the balance of its unused “Promotion Fee”, and party A will not need to undertake other legal liabilities and compensation of fees.
Party B shall be responsible for the safety of the user name and password of its promotion account, and shall not disclose the user name and password of the promotion account to anyone. Without written authorization from party A, the client shall not resell, lease or lend the service account that party A opens for the client and the service and resources that party A commits to provide to client under this contract to any third party. If the client violates such regulation, party A reserves the right to close the client’s service account and terminate the provision of service to such client. Meanwhile, Party A will not be refunded or partially refunded for the service fee paid by the customer.
Party B guarantees that the website promoted through party A was legally established and has legal qualifications, party B has legal rights over such website, meanwhile, such website must have certain substantial contents and have actual correlation with the advertising images registered by party B, or else party A shall have the right to remove the advertising images without correlation with the contents of party B’s website, or terminate the “Online Promotion Service” of party B’s website, refund the balance of unconsumed “Promotion Fee” to party B after deducting the given “Promotion Fee”, and shall have no need to undertake other legal liabilities and compensation of fees.
Party B guarantees that the information promoted through the link of guideinchina (including website or application program) doesn’t contain any content that may break the related laws and regulations of the state or the content of any international convention that is acknowledged or joined by the People’s Republic of China, including content that involve harm to national security, obscenity, false information, insult, slander, intimidation or harassment, infringement to other’s copyright or personal right or other legal rights and interests, or violation of public order and good custom, or links pointing to such contents.
Party B shall guarantee its registered and promoted url can be opened, or else party A shall have the right to remove its corresponding contents promoted after finding that the url address is unable to be opened. Party B agrees that party A’s promotion system may implement connectivity tests on the url registered by client, if the system judges that url couldn’t be opened, the promotion corresponding to such url will be temporarily removed. Party B guarantees that during the process of registering website information by itself or through its agent, they would not maliciously avoid party A’s promotion system rules, and would not attack or intend to attack party A’s promotion system in the form of registering excessive data, hiding program, etc.
Party B guarantees that the information promoted through guideinchina (including website and application program) link meet all the requirements of the related laws and regulations, authentic, accurate, timely, comprehensive, complete and consistent with the related circumstances, party B agrees to accept party A’s confirmation of matters related to “Online Promotion Service” in form of telephone, email or personal visit.
Party B shall guarantee the authenticity of its account and other financial information, and shall be consistent with the owner of promoting website and the signing party of party A’s online promotion service contract, any and all financial risks incurred from fake financial information or inconsistent financial information shall be borne by party B, party A shall not bear any liability, in case of any loss caused to party A hereof, party B shall make compensation.
Party B shall not use “Online Promotion Service” for the website that hasn’t been opened yet, party B must guarantee that the website address provided is correct, and the website or webpage could be normally visited, and the website services or other website functions could be normally used, for website that couldn’t be normally visited, party A shall have the right to temporarily suspend service until party B recovers access to the website, but any and all consequences caused from party B’s website or webpage’s inability to be normally visited, such as clicking charging, shall be borne by party B on its own. Party B guarantees that its promoted website information and website do not contain any virus, malicious software or other contents that have unsafe influence on internet or damage party A or netizens, or else party A shall have the right to stop its promotion.
The online promotion service only includes linking to party B’s website, any and all legal disputes incurred from any commercial behavior of party B shall be borne by party B on its own and have nothing to do with party A.
Party B shall not, in any way, make malicious clicks on the payment items of other network extension service customers. If Party B considers that the statistical report provided by Party A is inaccurate, Party B shall have the right to notify Party A to terminate the "Internet Promotion Service" in writing, and Party A shall stop Party B’s service within three (3) working days upon receipt of Party B's written notice, party A shall refund the balance of any unconsumed “Promotion Fee” to party B after deducting the given “Promotion Fee”, and then this contract shall be terminated. If party B believes that the statistic data report provided by party A is inaccurate, but it doesn’t send a written notice to party A and require termination of “Online Promotion Service”, or renew the use of “Online Promotion Service” to party A, party B shall be deemed as consenting to party A’s statistic data report.
Party B shall take full responsibility for the user name and password that it registeres on the online promotion service, and shall take full responsibility for all the activities and events made under the registered user name, if party B finds any illegal use of the administrative account of “Online Promotion Service”, or has any situation of safety loophole, party B shall immediately notify party A.
Party B agrees to demonstrate its promoted website information on certain positions of www.guideinchina.com website and related page of wap website.
Party B agrees that party A may, for the purpose of maintaining its administrative account of “Online Promotion Service” or after receiving notice (such notice may be in form of telephone, fax, email, etc.) from party B, inquire, adjust, modify or update party B’s management account.
In case party B encounters any force majeure event, and has to terminate “Online Promotion Service”, after party B or its agent provides party A with a written certificate, party A may refund the balance of unconsumed “Promotion Fee” to party B but without refunding the given “Promotion Fee”. If party B requires termination of “Online Promotion Service” due to other causes than force majeure, this contract may be terminated upon consensus reached between the two parties through consultation, and the balance of unconsumed “Promotion Fee” shall be refunded, but the given “Promotion Fee” shall not be refunded.
If party B violates any clause stipulated in this contract, party A shall have the right to refuse to provide party B with “Online Promotion Service” and terminate this contract, the “Promotion Fee” already paid by party B or its agent shall not be refunded, meanwhile, party A shall reserve the right to hold party B accountable for further legal liabilities.
Before each renewal, party B shall be obliged to carefully re-read and ensure complete understanding of the “Advertising Promotion Service Contract of HiredChina Network Technology Co., Ltd.”, and execute renewal after fully consenting all the clauses of this contract, party B’s behavior of renewal at each time shall be deemed as party B having read and fully understands the latest edition of this contract and commitment to comply with the agreement.
Party B shall be obliged to timely review and comply with the notices of party A’s system announcements in its account and the latest edition of the “Advertising Promotion Service Contract of HiredChina Network Technology Co., Ltd.” and other policies released.
19. 当乙方可能涉嫌违反国家法律、法规、甲方规定推广政策的情况下，甲方有权提前5个工作日通知乙方终止 “网络推广服务”，甲方扣除赠送的“推广费”后向乙方退回未消费完毕的“推广费”余额，本合同终止，甲方无需承担其他法律责任和费用补偿。
In case party B is suspected to violate any national law, regulation, or party A’s promotion policy, party A shall have the right to notify party B of the termination of “Online Promotion Service” 5 working days in advance, party A shall refund the balance of unconsumed “Promotion Fee” to party B after deducting the given “Promotion Fee”, then this contract shall be terminated, party A shall not need to undertake other legal liabilities and compensation of fees.
If party B’s promotion behavior violates the “Advertising Promotion Service Contract of HiredChina Network Technology Co., Ltd.” and causes party A to be subject to third-party complaint (including but not limited to that a third party uses the form of sending letter or media coverage, etc. to accuse party A of infringement, file lawsuit against party A, or report to the competent authorities, which causes party A to be subject to investigation or inquiry, etc.), or make party A face investigation or inquiry by the competent authorities, party A shall have the right to remove such advertising images, promoted website information and promoted website link, and stop the “Online Promotion Service” targeting such advertising images and/or website. In case of the circumstances above, if party A decides to continuously perform this contract, party B shall immediately correct the promoted website information and/or contents on the website suspected of violation, and provide party A with valid certificate or materials; if party B clearly requires suspension of “Online Promotion Service” after receiving the notice from party A, under the precondition that party B hasn’t violated the related laws and regulations and/or this contract, party A shall refund the balance of unconsumed “Promotion Fee” to party B after deducting the given “Promotion Fee”, then this contract shall be terminated, party A shall not need to undertake other legal liabilities and compensation of fees.
If party B’s promotion behavior violates the “Advertising Promotion Service Contract of HiredChina Network Technology Co., Ltd.” and causes party A to be subject to third-party complaint (including but not limited to that a third party uses the form of sending letter or media coverage, etc. to accuse party A of infringement, file lawsuit against party A, or report to the competent authorities, which causes party A to be subject to investigation or inquiry, etc.), or make party A face investigation or inquiry by the competent authorities, party B shall, after receiving party A’s notice, consult with such third party in its own name, accept the lawsuit, or accept the investigation or inquiry by the competent authorities, and undertake all the expenses (including but not limited to litigation fee, lawyer fee, compensation), and compensate party A for all the losses incurred hereof, party A shall have the right to deduct the foresaid expenses and/or loss compensation from the previous payments by party B or its agent, but if the deduction is still insufficient to cover party A’s loss, party B shall also compensate for the losses.
The two parties shall undertake confidentiality responsibility for the business secrets of the other party obtained due to signing and/or performance of this contract, and shall not disclose it to any third party in any form or in any excuse, unless it is disclosed based on written agreement between the two parties, according to laws or regulations, or as required by judicial and/or governmental agency; or else either party shall have the right to claim loss compensation from the other party, and hold the other party accountable for legal liabilities according to law.
Confidentiality responsibility shall not become invalid due to ineffectiveness, advance termination, cancellation or lack of operability of this contract.
Party A shall have the right to modify the promotion policy, authentication policy and contents of this contract at any time based on the change of laws and regulations of the People’s Republic of China, development of internet, operation situation of company, and adjustment of operating strategy. The client agrees that policy, notice, or change of contractual amount shall come into effect since the releasing date, the client shall actively and timely review the related notices, and perform the related obligations based on such notice, modified product policy and modified contract, if the client doesn’t agree to the changed policy, it shall notify party A in written form, within 3 days after the announcement, for termination of this contract, the client’s continuous use of changed service shall be deemed as its acceptance of changed contents.
If any contractual clause is contradicting with any law of the People’s Republic of China, such clauses shall be completely re-interpreted according to law, the other clauses shall still maintain the legal effect and influence on party B.
For any of the following circumstances, party A shall not undertake any responsibility:
Online promotion service couldn’t be successfully registered due to other reason than party A’s purposeful act or mistake;
Party B suffers loss due to any purposeful act or mistake by party B or its agent;
Party B suffers any influence due to party A’s implementation of system test, upgrading, updating, service sampling test, etc. on the online promotion system.
If party A violates any obligation set forth in this contract and causes any loss to party B, the maximum limit of penalty and/or compensation shall be equivalent to the “Promotion Fee” actually paid by party B for the last renewal of online promotion account before party A’s violation. If party B fails to implement renewal, the maximum limit shall be the advance payment for promotion paid for the first time.
The effect, interpretation, execution, jurisdiction and dispute settlement of this contract shall all be applicable to the laws of the People’s Republic of China.
Any and all disputes incurred from or in connection with this contract shall be submitted to China Guangzhou Arbitration Commission as agreed between the two parties, and shall be arbitrated online according to the online arbitration clause of such commission.
This contract shall come into effect upon consent by party B or its agent.
The two parties confirm that this contract and its latest edition is the finally confirmed edition of the “Online Promotion Service” for party B as signed between party A and party B. Party B’s acceptance of “Online Promotion Service” means party B’s consent and signing of this contract. If there is any conflict between any description relating to “Online Promotion Service” in other documents signed by party B (including but not limited to the contracts signed between party B and its agent, contracts signed between party B’s agent and party A) and this contract, it shall be in accordance with this contract. (Unless otherwise agreed regarding amount of promotion renewal)
Serious notes: in order to enable you to receive highly efficient and high-quality service, please carefully read and ensure full understanding of the related clauses of “Online Promotion Service” under the guideinchina promotion service channel. Party B understands that any conflict between any description relating to online promotion service in the documents provided by any person or institution and party A’s online clauses shall be in accordance with this contract and its updated edition.
The notification method stated in this contract is that: party A shall notify party B or its agent in advance in form of online announcement (address at http:www.guideinchina.com) and/or the internal announcement of guideinchina promotion service system and/or email and/or telephone, etc., as for notices to party B, the date when party B receives such change shall be in accordance with the following dates: the 3rd working day since the date of announcement online, the date when email enters party B’s email account, the date when telephone call is received. As for notices to agent, it shall be in accordance with the contract between party A and agent. Under any circumstance, when party B sends notices to party A, party B shall adopt email and/or telephone or other methods to notify party A in advance. The date for party A to receive notices shall be the same as above. For either party sending notice to the other party in multiple methods, the date for the other party to receive such notice shall be in accordance with the earliest date of receiving.
The whole text of the present Contract, as well as the documents derived from it, including those in the Annexes, have been written in Mandarin and English, both versions being deemed authentic, but for legal purposes the text in Mandarin is to be given priority of interpretation.